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The Big Five

Published on Feb 01, 2020

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The Big Five

Photo by KJGarbutt

Phonemic Awareness

  • Noticing
  • Thinking
  • working with individual sounds of words
Photo by Romain Vignes

The signs of phonemic awareness

  • recognizing sets of words that begin with the same sound
  • saying the first or last sound in a word
  • combining or blending sounds in a word
  • breaking a word into separate sounds


Phonics Instruction

  • teaches children the relationship between letters and sounds
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These relationships they learn help them to read and write

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  • graphophonemic
  • Letter-sound associations
  • letter-sound correspondences
  • sound-symbol correspondences
  • sound spellings


  • learn that phone is spelled this way instead of foan

Fluency instruction

  • To read accurately and quickly
  • This builds a bridge between word recognition and comprehension
Photo by Brett Jordan

fluent readers

  • make a connection with the ideas in the text
  • between the ideas and their background knowledge, making them able to comprehend what they are reading

Fluency involves a lot of practice. Even skilled readers may struggle on what they are reading.

Vocabulary Instruction

  • vocabulary whether it be oral or reading is something we need to communicate effectively.
  • Children use the words they have heard to help them learn written words
Photo by mikecogh

People have a hard time reading words that aren't already in their oral vocabulary

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Types of vocabulary

  • listening
  • speaking
  • reading
  • writing
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Text Comprehension Instruction

  • Why read if you can't comprehend?
  • We MUST comprehend/understand what we are reading

Purposeful readers are reading to inform themselves or find out something

Photo by Fran Simó

Active readers will use different resources or knowledge to make sense of what they are reading

Photo by Tessss