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Overlooked Native American History

Published on Nov 06, 2015

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Photo by Camil Tulcan

First treaty of Fort Laramie

In 1851, the first Fort Laramine Treaty was signed amongst the US Government and the Sioux. This treaty tried to declare peace between the White American miners that were on their way to California and the people of the Sioux. The U.S and The Sioux came to an agreement. The Sioux proposed that they'd let there be railroad and trail transportation across the territories if there was an exchange for the annual federal payments of $50,000 for 50 years to the tribe. As for the U.S., they declared that The Sioux held the monarch rights to the Black Hills. The US government started constructing many trading lists after the treaty was signed and done with. The Sioux took up about 5% of the US land which today is known as sections of Nebraska, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota.

Sand Creek massacre

In November 29, 1864, the Sand Creek Massacre was a chaotic, cruel event I the American Indian Wars. In the southern Colorado territory, the Colorado Territory militia which was a force of 700 men took over two small villages called Arapaho and Cheyenne. During the take over they killed around 70-160 Indians. Most of the killed were women and children.

Second treaty of Fort Laramie

In 1868, the Second Treaty of Fort Laramine came into play. This treaty granted the Lokota and Dakota Sioux total possession of the Dakota Territory west of the Missouri River. The Whites and Sioux decided to take the offer to remain within the Black Hills Reservation. The Second Treaty of Fort Laramine was said to be the most controversial treaty in the history of Indian vs. US relations. With this treaty, the war between the Sioux and US government was finally over.

Fetterman massacre

On December 21, 1866, a battle between Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Lakota Indians and soldiers of the United States army occurred called The Fetterman Massacre. This battle was happening during the Red Cloud War. These Indians wanted payback. They attacked and took the lives of all 81 men who were under the power of Captain William J. Fetterman. After the battle, the US were withdrawn from the war and the Indians took their victory.

Battle of the Little BigHorn

Through June 25-26 1876, the Battle of Little BigHorn took place. This was a military combat between the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Tribes who went against the United States Army. The US Army wanted the tribes to go back to the reservations so they got George Custer to help them. Custer and about 40 soldiers who were near at hand decided to attack before waiting for the rest of the army. Before attacking he had no idea how overpowered he'd be by the tribes. In the end, Custer was severely defeated by the Indians. The Battle of Little BigHorn was the most important event that occured during the Great Sioux War during 1876.

Sitting Bull, George Custer, and Crazy Horse
Sitting Bull was a holy man from Hunkpapa Lakota, and was a leader to his people during the time where people were resisting the U.S. government. While he and his people were having trouble with the police, he was shot in the head and side by Lieutenant Bull Head and Red a Tomahawk. He was buried in South Dakota. Crazy horse was a Native American war leader born in 1840. He was the leader of the Ogala Lakota. He and his followers fought against the U.S. government due to invasions on the property and culture of the Lakota people. Crazy Horse was killed in 1877 by a military guard because he was resisting arrest. George Custer was a U.S. army officer and cavalry commander. He fought in the first battle of Bull Run.

The Nez Perce and Chief Joseph

The Nez Perce was an American Indian tribe that lived in the Pacific Northwest region. Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce during the time where the United States harshly moved them out of their homes. He led those who resisted their removal along with Sitting Bull. They were approached by the U.S. military, and this fight later became known as the Nez Perce war.

The Long Walk of the Navajo people, the Apaches, and Geronimo.
Ater being remove from their land in 1864, the Navajo people walked 13 miles each day while being held at gunpoint all the way from (modern) Arizona to New Mexico.
The modern term for Apache excludes the Navajo people. The Navajo people and other Native American tribes are all related to each other through language and culture, so the Navajo people are considered Apachean. Apaches is the collective word for culturally related tribes of Native Americans in the United States.
Geronimo was the leader of the Bedonkohe Apache, who battled against Texas and Mexico because of their expansion against the Apache lands. This resilience lasted several decades, and was known as the Apache wars. Geronimo died February 17th, 1909.

Wovoka and the Wounded Knee massacre
Wovoka (also known as Jack Wilson) was a religious leader who created the Ghost Dance movement. The Ghost Dance movement was practiced by those who were wounded during the Wounded Knee Massacre, and was included into several Native American beliefs. According to Wovoka, doing the dance would unite the living and dead spirits and bring peace to the people. The Wounded Knee Massacre all started when the 7th cavalry went to the Lakota camp to disarm the people. A deaf man resisted to give up his rifle, and a shot was fired when him and the cavalry men were fighting for it. This caused the 7th cavalry to open fire on the Lakota people, resulting in the deaths of many men, women, children, and even a few of their own soldiers.

Dawes Act of 1887

The Dawes Act of 1887 allowed the president to divide Native American land into allotments for individual Native Americans. Whoever accepted the act and lived away from their tribes were granted U.S. citizenship. This act was created by Senator Henry Laurens Dawes from Massachusetts.