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Chem. Vocab. Chap. 3

Published on Nov 21, 2015

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Chemical change-any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances.

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Chemical property- any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction.

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Chromatography- the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension or as a vapor (as in gas chromatography) through a medium in which the components move at different rates.

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Compound- a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together.

Crystallization- a chemical solid–liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs.

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Distillation- The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points.

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Element- A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

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Extensive properties- a property that changes when the size of the sample changes.

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Filtration- The act or process of filtering, especially the process of passing a liquid or gas, such as air, through a filter in order to remove solid particles.

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Gas- matter, composed of molecules in constant random motion.

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Heterogeneous mixture- a mixture having a non-uniform composition.

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Homogeneous mixture- A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

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Intensive properties- a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system.

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Law of conservation of mass- states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy (both of which have mass), the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not added or removed.

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Law of definite properties- law stating that every pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight

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Law of multiple proportions- when two elements combine in more than one proportion to form two or more compounds the weights of one element that combine with a given weight of the other element are in the ratios of small whole numbers.

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Liquid- form of matter between a gas and a solid that has a definite volume, but no definite shape

Mixture- two or more substances which have been combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity.

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Percent by mass- 100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield .

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Periodic table- all known elements grouped an organized based on atoms and similarities

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Physical changes- changes affecting the form of a chemical substance, but not its chemical composition.

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Physical property- heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force. The more properties we can identify for a substance, the better we know the nature of that substance.

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Product- The compounds that are formed when a reaction goes to completion.

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Reactant- Substances initially present in a chemical reaction that are consumed during the reaction to make products.

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Solid- firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid.

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Solution- a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase.

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States of matter- One of the four principal conditions in which matter existssolid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

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Substance- is matter which has a specific composition and specific properties

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Vapor- a substance diffused or suspended in the air, especially one normally liquid or solid.

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