- Egyptian art started in 3000 B.C
- Most of their art had to do with their religion
- Temples are a popular place for art
- Tomb walls of the rich and powerful were filled with paintings to help the person in the after life
Dancers often danced in groups, but only one gender at a time.
- Ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs and the queen
- The three largest and best preserved were built in Giza the beginning of Old Kingdom
- There are many reasons why the Ancient Egyptians built the pyramid shape, and here is one theory: the pyramid had sloping sides so that the dead pharaoh could symbolically climb to the sky and live forever
There are about 130 pyramids known from Ancient Egypt today.
- Ancient Egyptians used hieroglyphics and plays or theaters to communicate and express their feelings
- Men usually only acted because women didn't have that many rights
- They also communicated with their gods and they talked about their daily life and problems
- Hieroglyphics have over 700 characters
Also communicated through art like on vases.
- Light clothing is made from plant fiber, mostly linen
- In Roman Times they used cotton ( rarely wool )
- Priests wore animal skin
- Kings and queens decorated their clothing with feathers
- Women's dresses at times were ornamented with beads
Clothes were mostly made by women at home, but there were workshops run by noblemen or other men of means.
- Agriculture created most of Egypt's wealth
- Hunting was a leisure activity to the rich
- Most of the things mined were of little interest to anyone
- A proportion of the grain produced was for the production of beer
- A large section of the population worked as farmed laborers and priests
The introduction of coined money was in the Late Period.
- Families usually had five or more children because most of them died before they grew up
- Girls usually lived 15 - 19 years in their house until they get married and move to live in their husband's house
- Boys get married a little older and still live in their parents house once they get married with their wife
- A number of people married their siblings
Egyptian families who were poor normally lived with their whole family in one room of a house while other families lived in other rooms of the house.
- Pharaoh was the supreme leader of the government and their religion
- Have a Monarchy government
- Citizens had to pay taxes to support the government
- People would come to the Pharaoh and kiss the ground at his feet
- Wives of the Pharaohs were the second most powerful people in the land
Under the Pharaoh was the Vizier ( like a prime minister ), then came Nomarks who were local governors, and under them were Other Officials ( many of them were priests and scribes ).
- King Menes found the city in 3100 B.C.
- Egypt's archeologists and historians created a study of their own: Egyptology
- In the Archaic Period as well as other Periods Egyptians were farmers living in small villages
- Around 3400 B.C two different kingdoms were formed
- Around 3100 B.C. to 2686 B.C. was the earliest known hieroglyphics writing dates to this period
Ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world.
- Akhet: represents the horizon from which the sun emerged and disappeared from
- Ankh: the symbol of eternal life
- Eye Of The Horus: represents the sun
- The symbols are instantly recognizable
The Ancient Egyptians had over 2000 gods so it was important for the Egyptians to recognize the symbols of their gods.
Egypt was one of the wealthiest countries in the world, so Egyptian merchants ( who were like traders ) carried gold, linen cloth, jewelry, and many more objects to other countries to exchange items to get in return such as panther skin, ebony wood, elephant tusks, and many more.
- Egyptian girls in general were equal to boys but they still weren't allowed to go to school
- Girls had to learn at home from their parents or from a private tutor ( usually a slave )
- Mainly the rich boys went to a special boys school where they would learn to be scribes
- Egyptian schools were a lot like modern schools with benches and all ( the walls were mud-brick )
If Egyptians were going to be a scribe they would start school at four and end school at the age of fifteen.
- Ancient Egyptians spoke the language Egyptian
- Egyptian is the oldest known indigenous language of Egypt
- Egyptian was spoke until the late 17th century A.D. in the form of Coptic
- Egyptian is part of the Afro-Asiatic group of languages
- The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian is one of the oldest record languages known.
- Egyptians mainly traveled by foot, sometimes wearing sandals
- Since the Egyptians lived near the Nile River they often traveled by boat or ferry
- In the Old Kingdom Egyptians better-off traveled in litters
- Used cargo ships to transport things
- Egyptians also traveled by rafts, chariots, sledges, and carts
Animals such as camels and donkeys were used by the Ancient Egyptians to travel around especially in deserts.
N: NATIONAL PRIDE
- Suez Canal is the symbol of Egyptian's national pride
- Former President Gamal Abdul Nasser nationalized the canal in the 1960s, it has served as a source of national pride for Egypt
By reclaiming Suez Canal for Egypt, Nasser has gone down in history as a national hero.
- The head of the Egyptian army was the Pharoah
- Under the Pharaoh were two generals ( one who led the army in Upper Egypt, and one who led the army in the Lower Egypt )
- Each army had three major branches: the Infantry, the Chariotry, and the Navy
The generals were usually close relatives to the Pharaoh.
- The population count under the first dynasties was possibly between 1 and 2 million inhabitants
- Was rising slowly until the end of the Old Kingdom
Q: QUALITY OF LIFE
- Egyptians were taught to have respect towards their parents and family
- Couples had to have full affection towards each other and they couldn't abuse one another
- Egyptians had a good quality of life
Families in Ancient Egypt were very close, because lots of the words for family were the same thing to them, for example " sister " would also be used to indicate the " wife ".
- Ancient Egyptians festivals were normally celebrated with offerings and feasts
- Wepet Renpet was a festival celebrated at the beginning of a new year
- The Opet festival was a celebration of the Theban Triad , which is the collective name of three Egyptian gods
- The Festival Of Khoiak originated from myths regarding the Egyptian God Osiris
The Sed Festival celebrated by all Egyptians ( also known as Heb Sed and Feast Of The Tail ) was an Ancient Egyptian festival that celebrated the 30th year of Pharaoh's rule and is held every three years.
- The Ancient Egyptian people were grouped in hierarchical system with the Pharaoh at the top
- The farmers and slaves were at the bottom
- The craftsmen were just above the farmers and slaves
The groups of people nearest the top of the society were the richest and most powerful.
- Cannot call an Egyptian an Arab
- Consuming alcohol was insulting to Egyptions
- Do not whistle or touch your teeth in public
- When an Egyptian is mad they will actually yell ( don't worry it's normal )
- Cannot cross legs with the sole of their shoe facing another person, and never sit with feet on the desk or furniture
After shaking hands Ancient Egyptians place their right hand over their heart, which shows respect and sincerity.
U: URBAN OR RURAL
- Ancient Egypt had urban and rural places
- Rural work included agriculture and food production
- Most Egyptians in the ancient times were peasant farmers and only owned a small amount of land
- Were many skilled craftsmen and tradesmen in urban areas of Egypt
- Jewelry making was a complex craft ( urban )
Egyptians in rural places grew wheat, barley, emmer, fruits, and vines for wine productions.
- The Pyramids of Giza was a beautiful place Egyptians went to see
- Egyptians also liked to see the Great Sphinx
- The Temple Of Hatshepsut was also a great place Ancient Egyptians went to see
- Ancient Egyptians also went to see the Luxor Temple which is located on the East Bank of the River Nile
The place Karnak in Egypt was the largest ancient religious site in the world, which represents the combined achievement of many generation of Egyptian builders.
W: WAYS OF EVERYDAY LIFE
- Men were engaged in physical sports, such as hunting, fishing, archery, wrestling, boxing, and stick fencing
- Men and women both enjoyed swimming
- Ancient Egyptians liked to play board games like one called a senet which was placed on a board of thirty squares
- Ancient Egyptians played a variety of instruments
Even though the music of Ancient Egyptians could be recreated, there really was no evidence of a developed system of music notation.
X: X MARKS THE SPOT
- Egyptian Civilization was formed around 3000 B.C.
- Farming had developed along the Nile River by 5000 B.C.
- Before 3200 B.C. the Egyptians, with trade and commercial influence from Mesopotamia, formed their very different civilization
Ancient Egypt's two main geographic features are the Nile and the Sahara Desert.
- The staple food was bread and beer supplemented by vegetables and dried fish
- Meat was not eaten often
- Wheat, barley, and olive oil gave Ancient Egyptians there calories
- Egyptians also made soup and porridge
- Ancient Egyptians grew melons
Egyptians liked to eat dates, figs, and honey like deserts.
- The Pyramid Of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian Pyramid that weighs as much as 16 Empire State Buildings
- Both Egyptian men and women wore make up
- The Ancient Egyptians invented paper, pens, locks and keys, and toothpaste
- Ancient Egyptians forged one of the earliest peace treaties on record
- Cleopatra was not Egyptian
Egyptian Pharaohs were often overweight, and pyramids were not built by slaves.